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   2022| January-June  | Volume 54 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 30, 2022

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Exploring cardinal principles of Dhyana: Constructivist reflections
Ranjeet Singh Bhogal
January-June 2022, 54(1):1-3
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Integrated effect of yoga and mindfulness meditation on pain, functional disability, and spinal flexibility in computer users with chronic low back pain: A prospective randomized active control trial
Chametcha Singphow, Satya Prakash Purohit, Padmini Tekur, Suman Bista, Surya Narayan Panigrahy, Nagarathna Raghuram
January-June 2022, 54(1):4-11
Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is two and a half times more prevalent in the working population than in nonworking population. The 1-year prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in working population ranges from 23% to 38%. However, the 1-year prevalence in computer professionals was found to be 31%–54%. Studies have demonstrated the vast mental and physiological health advantages associated with yoga. Objective: We planned to investigate the effect of yoga and mindfulness meditation in computer users with CLBP. Methods: Eighty computer users (42.6 ± 8.45 years of age; suffering from CLBP for 5.20 ± 3.01 years; 51 males and 29 females) were recruited from Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Subjects were randomized into two groups; yoga and mindfulness meditation/YM group (n = 40) and physical exercise/PE group (n = 40). YM group practiced an integrated module comprising yoga practices and mindfulness meditation, while PE group practiced physical exercises designed for LBP (1 h per day, 3 days per week for 16 weeks). Assessments were done at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after 16 weeks. Results: Seventy-seven participants (39 in YM and 38 in PE) completed the study. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores and Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores decreased significantly, and the Sit and Reach Test (SRT) scores improved significantly in both groups after intervention (p < 0.001). Between-group analyses demonstrated that there was a significant difference in ODI scores (YM = 7.28 ± 5.68, PE = 15.53 ± 8.13, P < 0.001), NRS scores (YM = 1.00 ± 0.89, PE = 1.82 ± 0.73, P < 0.001), and SRT scores (YM = 26.41 ± 5.03, PE = 22.82 ± 4.96, P = 0.002) between the YM group and PE group at 16 weeks, favoring the YM group. Conclusion: A 16-week yoga & mindfulness meditation program appeared to be effective in reducing pain and functional disability, and in improving spinal flexibility in computer users with CLBP.
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Efficacy of yoga practices on emotion regulation and mindfulness in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
Amit Kanthi, Singh Deepeshwar, Chidananda Kaligal, Mahadevappa Vidyashree, Dwivedi Krishna
January-June 2022, 54(1):12-17
Introduction: Poor emotion regulation (ER) is linked to diabetes distress and depression that may contribute to uncontrolled glycemic levels among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. As ER can adversely affect the physiological and psychological health of patients with T2DM, holistic management of the disease is essential. Yoga therapy is one such method that can positively impact both the mental and physical health of T2DM patients. Methods: Individuals with T2DM (n = 54) were recruited for the study and were randomly allocated to the intervention (yoga) group and control (conventional treatment) group. Cognitive reappraisal (CR) and expressive suppression (ES) were assessed as ER skills, and mindfulness was evaluated before and after the intervention. The intervention was provided for 3 months. Results: Participants of the yoga group showed an improved ER ability with increased CR and decreased ES. However, these changes were not statistically significant. ES was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the control group. In addition, the yoga group showed significantly increased (p < 0.05) mindfulness and was decreased in the control group. Conclusion: Yoga therapy positively affects the psychological well-being of T2DM patients.
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Effect of yoga nidra on the brain activity in individuals with migraine
HC Shashikiran, Prashanth Shetty, R Akshay, Avani Venugopal, Shivaprasad Shetty
January-June 2022, 54(1):18-23
Background: Migraine is a frequent neurological problem that carries the largest burden in terms of years spent disabled among neurological conditions. The conventional management has not been able to successfully treat migraine and hence, there was a need for combating these disorders through conventional therapies like yoga with an evidence-based approach. As there are only few evidence in this aspect, this research aims at finding evidence for yoga and naturopathy on migraine. Materials and Methods: Participants (n = 60) were randomly allocated into two groups, control group (n = 30) and intervention group (n = 30). The intervention group received Yoga Nidra and the control group was given supine rest (Rest without conscious awareness). The electroencephalogram data were recorded both at baseline and postintervention for both groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp), and the results were tabulated. Results: The results of the current study showed increased frequency in alpha waves in the interventional group compared to the control group. The control group showed no significant changes in the brain activity. Conclusion: The results indicate that Yoga Nidra induces relaxation through enhanced alpha waves. This shows that Yoga Nidra helps in parasympathetic dominance and hence decreases sympathetic activation. Hence, this study suggests that Yoga Nidra could be used as an effective tool in combating stress and neuropsychiatric symptoms in migraine patients.
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Evolution of yoga: From spiritual uplift to business outburst
HR Dayananda Swamy, Govindasamy Agoramoorthy
January-June 2022, 54(1):36-40
Yoga has become a multi-billion dollar business in the globalized society. From celebrities to commoners, the art of bending bodies and boggling minds through various procedures of Yoga practice has become an essential activity to enhance health. This article analyzes how the intuitive virtuosity of yoga intended for spiritual advancement has evolved to become an exploding business enterprise in contemporary society. People worldwide adore the practice of yoga since it promotes both physical and mental fitness while making people cheerful. This article outlines the often ignored aspect of ethics mandated in classical yoga scriptures to pursue the spiritual journey to attain the ultimate freedom through enlightenment.
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Meditation and its practice in Vedic scriptures and early Taoism scriptures
Zanyi Wang, Vikas Rawat, Xinli Yu, Ramesh Chandra Panda
January-June 2022, 54(1):41-46
Meditation is one of the oldest spiritual practices in ancient India and China. It refers to a process of purifying the mind through a series of practices, developing inner wisdom to attain spiritual freedom. In ancient Indian Vedic scriptures, meditation practice was described as the initial practice of Dhāraṇ ā (concentration) and Dhyāna (meditation), and in ancient Chinese early Taoism scriptures described as Sitting and forgetting, and Fasting of the mind. Various modern scientific studies have proven the physiological and psychological effects of meditation. This study starts with the original concepts of meditation in Vedic and early Taoism scriptures to analyze the origin of thoughts, purposes, practice methods, characteristics, and results; and compare the similarities and differences of both meditation practices.
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A cross-sectional study on impulsiveness, mindfulness, and World Health Organization quality of life in heartfulness meditators
Dwivedi Krishna, Deepeshwar Singh, Krishna Prasanna
January-June 2022, 54(1):24-30
Context: Heartfulness meditation (HM) is a heart-based meditation with its unique feature of transmitting energy which may have an impact on mental health and well-being. The present study intends to compare the mental health-related outcomes in long-term HM meditators (LTM), short-term HM meditators (STM), and control groups (CTL). Materials and Methods: The self-reported measures of mental health and well-being are reported by using State Trait Anxiety Inventory-II, Barratt Impulsive Scale-11, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, Meditation Depth Questionnaire, and World Health Organization Quality of life-BREF. A total of 79 participants (29 females) participated in LTM (n = 28), STM (n = 26), and CTL (n = 25) with age range 30.09 ± 6.3 years. Results: The LTM and STM groups showed higher mindfulness along with the depth of meditation, quality of life, and lower anxiety and impulsivity than to CTL group. Our findings suggest that the HM practice enhances mindfulness, reduces anxiety, and regulates impulsivity. The LTM and STM groups showed significant positive trends of mindfulness as compared to CTL. Conclusion: The results indicated that HM practice could be an effective intervention for reducing anxious and impulsive behavior by subsequently improving mindfulness-related mental health and well-being.
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Essential but seldom taught Yogāṅgas
Radha Soneji, Alex Hankey, Melukote Krishnamurthy Sridhar, HR Nagendra
January-June 2022, 54(1):31-35
Context: The theme of the 7th International Day of Yoga on June 21, 2021, was “Yoga For Wellness,” focusing on practice of yoga for physical and mental well-being. Since the concept of such a celebration was suggested by the UN General Assembly in 2014, yoga teaching has blossomed in almost all nations. However, a loss of rigor in the treatment of traditional yoga has resulted. Commercial aspects have reduced yoga to physical, breathing, and concentration exercises. Aims: The aim of this paper is to discuss three neglected Yogaṅgas, the Yamāḥ, Niyamāḥ and Pratyahāraḥ, and their potential benefits (siddhi) for society in the world today. Materials and Methods: We consulted four different reputed translations of Patanjali Yoga Sutra, during which, we generally hit on new, previously untreated aspects of the Sanskrit text. Results: Using an holistic perspective on the whole text, we provide new translations of pāda II's twenty sūtras concerning the Yamāḥ, Niyamāḥ, and Pratyahāraḥ. Practices to inculcate each of them are also explained. Conclusions: Traditional yoga highlights the important need to build a good character and helps develop the self-discipline to achieve high levels of both balance of mind and presence of mind; i.e., to live in the present moment, with union (yoga) of mind and body, and of thoughts, words and action, and lead a life of integrated restful alertness.
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