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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2021| July-December  | Volume 53 | Issue 2  
    Online since December 22, 2021

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
A literature review on behavioral attributes of yoga postures and cognition
Ankit Gupta, Ram Kumar Gupta
July-December 2021, 53(2):141-144
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_62_21  
Background: Hatha Yoga is the science of training one's mind and body through the practice of shatkarma, asana, pranayama, mudra, and samadhi. The objective of this literature review is to provide a theoretical rationale to identify (a) the specific attribute of the yoga poses which have been used in yoga protocol of various studies but not explicitly explored and (b) the minimum time required to hold a posture to bring the corresponding change in the performance among aforesaid cognitive function(s). Materials and Methods: Keywords such as yoga and cognition, yoga and working memory, yoga posture and cognition, and yoga and attention have been used to retrieve 24 empirical studies from Google Scholar. Those studies which have included only the yoga poses (asanas) as part of the yoga intervention in improving the cognitive functions were included in the review. Results: Traditions of Yoga such as Hatha and Iyengar Yoga emphasizes on postural alignment and accuracy, these asanas improve a variety of psychological, physiological, and cognitive functions. One study showed an improvement in cognitive functions and in another study, yoga practitioners showed improved reaction time. Conclusion: Due to inadequate empirical studies on yoga posture and cognition, it is not recommended to definitively conclude about the role of said attributes in improving cognitive performance. Future studies should involve longitudinal and randomized designs, large sample size, and homogeneous sample in terms of age-, gender-, and disease-specific population. The details of the studies are described in the manuscript.
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EDITORIAL
Yoga for mental health, psycho-social harmony, and absolute well-being
Ranjeet Singh Bhogal
July-December 2021, 53(2):79-81
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_128_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of yoga therapy on psychological distress and quality of life in head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy
Anjali Mangesh Joshi, Suchitra Ajay Mehta, Ajay Omprakash Mehta, Suresh Narayanrao Ughade, Kamaljeet Sanjay Randhe
July-December 2021, 53(2):82-90
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_97_21  
Context: Significant psychological morbidity with stress, depression, and anxiety has been reported in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing curative treatment. Failure to detect and treat psychological distress affects the outcomes of cancer therapies and decreases patients' quality of life (QoL). Studies have reported the benefits of yoga for anxiety, symptom severity, and distress in cancer patients. Aims: To identify the effects of yoga therapy on psychological distress and QoL in HNC patients undergoing radiotherapy. Settings and Design: Single-group, pretest posttest study in a clinical setting. Subjects and Methods: Psycho-Oncology Assessment Questionnaire, Distress Thermometer, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 version 3.0, and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires were administered to HNC patients (n = 22) before and after yoga intervention during 6 weeks of radiotherapy. The yoga intervention included loosening practices, asana, pranayama, and meditation. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed in statistical software - STATA, version 10.1 (2011). Results: Significant reduction in psychological distress (p = 0.0001) and improvement in the QoL (p = 0.0001) was observed. Significant improvement in physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and role functioning (p = 0.0001) was observed. Significant reduction in QLQ-C30 symptom subscale scores of insomnia, pain, appetite loss, and fatigue (p = 0.0001) was observed. Significant reduction in H&N35 symptom subscale scores related to swallowing, opening the mouth (p = 0.0001), trouble with social eating, trouble with social contact, and felt ill (p < 0.05) was observed. Conclusion: Yoga therapy intervention significantly reduced the psychological distress, improved the QoL, improved functions, and reduced symptoms in HNC patients undergoing radiotherapy. Further validation is required by conducting randomized controlled trials with a larger sample size.
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Yogic postures and brain wave activation: An experimental approach
Anup De, Samiran Mondal, Soumendra Nath Ghosh
July-December 2021, 53(2):91-99
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_34_21  
Background: Yoga is a practice to control and develop the mental function. Scientists are trying to establish the effect of yoga on the various systems and organs in the human body by using different scientific methods and research techniques. The brain is one of the main targeted organs in yoga research. Objective: The objective of this study is to identify the electrical responses of the brain after immediate yogasana practices. Materials and Methods: Ten male (n=10) yoga practitioners having more than 8 years of experience in yogasana practice were selected as participants. Before and after immediate practices of six specific yoga postures were assessed on three different consecutive days for 15, 22.5, and 30 min. Delta, theta, alpha, sensory-motor rhythm (SMR), beta, and gamma amplitudes were assessed under the circumstance of electrical activity of the brain and measured using NeXus-10 device. Results: The outcome of the brain wave components showed that there was a decrease in delta (9.12%, 12.3%, and 19.52%), theta (12.32%, 15.9%, and 16.09%), alpha (11.99%, 17.49%, and 13.21%), SMR (6.89%, 17.27%, and 13.5%), beta (0.29%, 13.95%, and 14.4%) amplitude immediately after 15, 22.5, and 30 min practice of yoga postures, respectively. In the case of gamma amplitude, initially, it increased 8.58% in 15 min practice, there after decreasing trend was observed in 22.5 min (11.47%) and 30 min practice (15.9%). Conclusions: Immediate yogasana practices may enhance the functions of brain wave activity which increases motor activity, autonomic flexibility, and associates with a better cognitive state.
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Effect of short duration integrated classroom yoga module on physical, cognitive, emotional and personality measures of school children
Atul Sinha, Sony Kumari
July-December 2021, 53(2):100-108
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_55_21  
Context: Despite evidence of therapeutic benefits of yoga on school children, many schools do not include yoga in their daily schedule. Reasons cited are lack of time and resources. An efficacious short duration integrated classroom yoga module (ICYM) can overcome such problems. Aim: This study aimed to test the effect of such a yoga module on physical fitness, cognitive performance, emotional wellbeing, and personality characteristic of school children. Methods: The design was a randomized controlled trial with participants sourced from grades 7–10. The intervention period was 2 months. The primary outcome measures were 4 tests from the EUROFIT physical fitness testing battery, Stroop color-word naming task, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, WHO-5 wellbeing index, and Sushruta Child Personality Inventory. Statistical analysis used a repeated measure analysis of variance. Secondary outcome measure was a qualitative assessment. Results: The yoga group showed significant differences compared to the control group in 2 of 4 physical fitness variables, Stroop color-word naming task, and in the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Conclusion: ICYM is a validated, feasible, and efficacious school-based short-duration integrated yoga module. It can be considered for incorporation into the daily school schedule.
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Influence of Yoga-based program on health satisfaction in the Mongoloid patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus
N Ibohal Singh, Balaram Pradhan, Mangesh Pandey, Niranjan Parajuli, Achouba Ksh Singh
July-December 2021, 53(2):109-115
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_111_21  
Background: Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have to live with this condition throughout the life. Minimizing the complications and enhancing the overall health of patients with T2DM are the major global challenges. Improving the health satisfaction in diabetes patients can enhance their adherence to treatment and could minimize the complications of the disease. Aim: The study evaluated the effects of Yoga along with treatment as usual on health satisfaction in T2DM patients of Mongoloid. Methods: The design of the present study is randomized control trial. This study was approved by the institutional ethical committee of Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS), Imphal, Manipur. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants before enrolling to the study. Four hundred and fifty diabetes patients belonging to Mongoloid race were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Endocrinology at JNIMS, Imphal, Manipur. Out of them, 310 participants (age range 25–80 years) were recruited for the study purpose for fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were randomized into Yoga along with treatment as usual group (N = 155) and treatment as usual group (N = 155). The Yoga along with treatment as usual group was prescribed oral antiglycemic agents and yoga intervention for 16 weeks. The treatment as usual group was prescribed oral antiglycemic agents only without any exercise during the period. Participants were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention by using the Current Health Satisfaction Questionnaire (CHES-Q). Final analysis included 151 participants in the Yoga along with treatment as usual group and 153 in the treatment as usual group. Four participants in the Yoga group and two participants in the control group were excluded from the study for discontinuing the treatment at the endocrinology department. Results: Within-group analysis showed a significant improvement in all the subfactors of health satisfaction in both groups. There was a significant interaction (groups × times) in all domains of CHES-Q, except satisfied with the current level of energy, satisfied with current ability to sleep, satisfied with current blood sugar levels, and satisfied with current mood. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed improvement in health satisfaction in both groups. Results also indicated that Yoga along with treatment as usual is better compared to the control group. However, future studies considering clinical and anthropometric parameters along with health satisfaction are required to support the current findings.
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Role of yoga as an adjuvant therapy in the management of metabolic syndrome – A randomized control pilot study
Rajasekaran Balaji, Meena Ramanathan, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
July-December 2021, 53(2):116-121
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_109_21  
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a public health threat rising globally at an alarming rate. Yoga as a therapy is becoming increasingly popular and its applications are increasing in various clinical conditions. Yoga is an integrated system of self-culturing, aimed at coordinated development of body and mind leading to enhanced physical health, spiritual harmony, positive thinking, happiness and peace. Aim: This study aimed to study the role of yoga as adjuvant therapy in the clinical management of MetS. Methods: The study was done an interdisciplinary collaborative work between Center for Yoga Therapy and Department of General Medicine of MGMCRI, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Puducherry. Thirty newly diagnosed MetS patients were recruited; prestudy evaluations of body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SP), diastolic blood pressure (DP), fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, and fasting lipid profile were done. By the method of simple randomization, subjects were allocated to yoga therapy group (n = 15), who received yoga therapy thrice weekly for 3 months along with standard medical management and to control group (n = 15) who received only standard medical management. Poststudy evaluation of all parameters was done at the end of the study period. Data were analyzed by Student's paired 't' test, as all data passed normality. Results: There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in all the above parameters in yoga group compared to control group. Changes seen in control group were missing significance. Conclusions: It may be concluded from the present pilot study that adjuvant yoga therapy is beneficial in maintaining good health and reducing metabolic risk factors. This may have impact on utilization of yoga therapy as a secure and cost-effective add-on therapeutic modality in combating MetS.
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Sthiti and Yatna in the Abhyāsa of Yoga: A Textual Study Based on 15 Saṃskṛta Commentaries of Yogasūtra
Jayaraman Mahadevan
July-December 2021, 53(2):122-128
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_77_21  
Background: Awareness about Yoga as a system of healing has increased in the current era. Various limbs of Yoga with their therapeutic benefits are being practiced and their efficacy is being investigated. But Yoga is not a onetime pill. It has to be practiced in a sustained and beneficial manner over a period of time for its benefits to manifest. Aim and Objectives: In Yogic parlance Abhyāsa is the term generally used to indicate practice. Yogasūtra, the fundamental text on Yoga defines Abhyāsa. In this context a comprehensive review of Yogasūtra Saṃskṛta commentary literature with specific focus on the definition of Abhyāsa is essential, which has hitherto not been attempted. Material and Methods: Fifteen Saṃskṛta commentaries have been surveyed and analysed for the current paper with focus on the definition of abhyāsa found in the sūtra - tatra sthitau yatno'bhyāsaḥ PYS 1.13. Result: The analysis of the Saṃskṛta commentary literature on this offers clarifications on the two sthiti-s of Yoga that is to be attained through the Yatna that has five dimensions. Conclusion: Though the inputs from the commentary lore discuss Abhyāsa in the spiritual, philosophical context- the implications of Abhyāsa in the therapeutic dimensions of Yoga are immensely useful. The outcomes of this textual review on being imbibed and incorporated in the practice of Yoga may add to the quality of Yoga practice there by facilitating better outcomes in Yoga aimed at health and wellbeing.
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Yoga concept in Sri Guru Granth Sahib teachings: A conceptual frame development
Gurneet Kaur, Paran Gowda
July-December 2021, 53(2):129-133
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_96_21  
Introduction: Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS) or Adi Granth is the main Sikh scripture. The SGGS promote principles of liberty and impartiality to pursue the way to the Guru following the path of peace and prosperity. The Sikh code of conduct is known as Sikh Rehat Maryada. The code is an outline of the mandates of daily routine followed by every Sikh. It stipulates philosophy and mandates, according to the teachings of Sikhism's 10 gurus. The studies show the relationship between SGGS and Yoga. In SGGS the first phrase, the Mool mantra, starts with the idiom, Ek Onkar (AUM). The primary goal of SGGS is to achieve union with God by constantly remembering God's name. Practice is oriented around three “golden rules.” Guru Nanak also hinted in his hymns about these chakras. Guru had talked about the Naval Lotus. In the heart (with the blooming of lotus), he has seen the Lord whose knowledge is spoken of as unfathomable. The way of the blooming of this lotus is described by Guru Nanak by saying that when with the help of “Guru-Sabad,” the heart lotus blooms and fills with nectar which makes one contented. The need of the conceptual frame arises due to lack of scientific understanding of SGGS. Methodology: Scale development is a systematic process that is carried out at different stages of analysis. Following recommendations of DeVellis RF and Pasqual L scale development for the present study was accomplished in three stages namely item generation, theoretical analysis, and psychometric analysis the 30 items developed after content validity testing and cognitive interviews with select respondents. Results and Conclusion: Conceptual framework is developed through the Yogic teachings from SGGS versus Patanjali Yoga Sutra.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Yoga and its adjuvant therapies for the management of varicose vein disease: A narrative review
Shweta Chauhan, Sanjib Kumar Patra
July-December 2021, 53(2):134-140
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_108_21  
Varicose veins (VVs) are twisted and dilated veins, mostly located in the lower limbs. The particular condition is mostly neglected due to lack of awareness about the issue, lack of symptoms, or late appearance of symptoms. The current review summarizes the overview of VV and available treatment options (conventional as well as nonconventional such as Ayurveda, exercise, and Yoga) for VV. VVs can range from uncomplicated asymptomatic visible small veins to symptomatic complicated varicose eczema and varicose ulcers. We identified 200 papers on VV between 2000 and 2021, out of which 40 were selected for particular review. Article search was done through Medline, Google Scholar, PubMed, psycINFO, and EMBASE using the keywords “varicose veins” and “surgery,” “treatment,” “conservative methods,” “Ayurveda,” “exercise,” and “Yoga.” The randomized and nonrandomized control, self as control studies, narrative reviews, systematic reviews, as well as case studies are included. The review focuses on the importance of nonconventional alternative form of therapies, specially Ayurveda, exercise, and Yoga, for the management of VV. There are a large number of studies done on VV, but a negligible number of studies are available to prove the effectiveness of Yoga on the particular condition. A lot of research trials on urgent basis are needed to prove the efficacy of Yoga in VV disease.
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The coronavirus pandemic impact on India's Yoga tourism business
HR Dayananda Swamy, Govindasamy Agoramoorthy
July-December 2021, 53(2):145-148
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_116_21  
Yoga tourism is an emerging market in India, with a great economic potential to boost revenue in the wellness travel and hospitality industries. Millions of tourists from foreign countries visit India each year to explore the history, philosophy, practice, and experiences of Yoga as the art originated there. However, little is known in the scientific literature on the Yoga-linked tourism and hospitality subject. Besides, how the enduring COVID-19 pandemic impacts the emerging Yoga tourism and hospitality sector in India is not fully understood. This article highlights the less-known aspects of India's Yoga tourism and hospitality and how the continuing COVID-19 pandemic impacts the business.
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Sociophilosophical concept of Duḥkha in Dhammapada and Yoga Sutra: A comparative study
Arvind Kumar Yadav, Tikhe Sham Ganpat
July-December 2021, 53(2):149-153
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_94_21  
Duḥkha (Pāli: Dukkha) is an important concept in Dhammapada and Yoga, commonly translated as “suffering,” “unhappiness,” “pain,” or “stress.” It is universal and unavoidable. Dhammapada is the essence of Lord Buddha's teachings intended to guide the students of Yoga marga. It consists of 26 chapters and 423 verses in the Pāli language. There are many verses in Dhammapada which talk about the prevention and cure of Duḥkha. Dhammapada suggests not to do unwholesome action which causes Duḥkha and instructs to follow the Yoga Mārga (Dhamma): Śṭla, Samādhi, and Pragyā. Each one is responsible for their actions and consequences. The disciple should be mindful and involve in doing wholesome action with the right thought. Then they will be able to free from Duḥkha and may attain happiness (Nibbāna). The Yoga Sutra of Patañjali is well-known text among the Yoga fraternity. Sage Patañjali codified the knowledge of Yoga in a unique way and has mentioned some Yogic practices to be from Duḥkha and attain the state of liberation (Kaivalya). Both Yoga Sutra and Dhammapada emphasize that one can overcome Duḥkha through the development of understanding. However, the two philosophies widely differ in the nature of that understanding. Dhammapada emphasizes the understanding of Anatta (Anatman, nonself, nonsoul), and Yoga Sutra emphasizes the understanding of Svarupa (self, soul), as each discusses the means to liberation from Duḥkha. This paper reviews the concept of Duḥkha and its cessation in the light of Dhammapada and Yoga Sutra of Patañjali.
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