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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2014| July-December  | Volume 46 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 1, 2015

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Effect of yogic intervention on Autism Spectrum Disorder
Manju Deorari, Ishwar Bhardwaj
July-December 2014, 46(3):81-84
Background: Autism is one of the most common developmental disorders. It is a lifelong brain disorder that is normally diagnosed in early childhood. Autism is a spectrum disorder varying in severity and impact from individual to individual. Aims: The main purpose of this study is to find the effect of yogic intervention on children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder. Settings and Design: Thirty children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder were selected from Abhiprerna Foundation, Haridwar for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 5 to 16 years. The design used for the study was pre-post design. Purposive sampling was used for collection of the sample. Methods: The current study was performed with parents/caregivers who gave information regarding the daily activities of the child; pre and post values for the study were assessed on the basis of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. yogic practices including OM Chanting, Asanas, and Pranayama were used as intervention for a period of 3 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired samples t-test was used for comparing the means of pre and post values. Results: Though there was statistically significant reduction in the symptoms of autism in children after a period of 3 months, yet the effect size was very small to draw an assertive conclusion. Conclusions: The results conclude that continuous practice of yoga may significantly improve the symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children. Such an effect also calls for a detailed study on their effectiveness in the long run.
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Exploring the significance of "Mudra and Bandha" in pelvic floor dysfunction
Mrithunjay Rathore, Sarita Agrawal, Prasanta Kumar Nayak, Manisha Sinha, Dhanyesh Kumar Sharma, Subarna Mitra
July-December 2014, 46(3):59-63
Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is commonly associated with the weakness of pelvic floor muscles and the supporting connective tissue structures, which may lead to prolapse of the pelvic organs. There are various researches which have shown the significance of pelvic floor exercise (PFE) on the PFD. The last few years have seen a growing interest in the field of yoga. "Mudra" and "Bandha" are reported as pelvic floor yogic exercises (PFYEs) in the ancient Indian texts. These yogic exercises involve the coordination of breath, maintain the structural integrity of the pelvic floor, and thereby prevent PFD. It is recognized that all the female patients of PFD can be benefited from education on PFYE. So, in this article, we have tried to highlight the significance of PFYE in the preventive and therapeutic aspects of PFD.
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Study of the concept of dvandva in the Pātañjala Yogasūtra from a philosophical and psycho-physiological perspective
Seema Rani Yadav
July-December 2014, 46(3):76-80
Background: In order to have a clearer understanding of yogic concepts as described in the Pātañjala Yogasūtra (PYS), the seminal, most authentic and authoritative, but extremely compact ancient text of yoga, there is a need for their critical study with reference to relevant commentaries and secondary sources of the PYS. Aim: The current study focused on the word dvandva (general meaning - pair, conflict) as used in the PYS, as well as various relevant commentaries on the PYS, in an attempt to explain the end effect of yogic āsana in relation to dvandva. Methods: A thorough review of the PYS and 22 commentaries on it that pertained to the concept of dvandva was conducted. The commentaries referred to were of two types: (a) Direct commentaries on the PYS and (b) indirect commentaries, i.e., commentaries on bhāṣya (commentary) of Vyāsa on the PYS. After this review, descriptive and analytical methods were used to correlate the philosophical understanding of dvandva, found in the PYS and its 22 relevant commentaries, with the psycho-physiological understanding of the concept. Results: There are mainly five pairs of words regarding dvandva pertaining to āsana in PYS and the 22 commentaries referred to. They are śïta-uṣṇa, sukha-duḥkha, māna-avamāna, kāma-krodha, and kṣut-tṛṣṇā/pipāsā. These five pairs of words are either opposites or compound words, and all of them seem to represent disturbing elements of a conflict. The psycho-physiological mechanisms, by which these five pairs of disturbing elements related to dvandva become ineffective as a result of perfection in āsana, can be hypothesized. Conclusion: The current study has attempted to critically analyze one of the important yogic concepts, dvandva. An effort has also been made to understand the mechanisms of transcending dvandva as a result of perfection in āsana, which the extremely compact PYS or its direct and indirect commentary seems to fall short of elucidating. Thus, the present study has thrown light on the need for fundamental studies of important terms or concepts mentioned in the PYS to understand their deeper meanings and probable mechanisms of action.
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Concept of Manas: Insights from Nyāya Darśana and Āyurveda
Hetal Amin, Rohit Sharma, Hitesh A Vyas, Mahesh K Vyas
July-December 2014, 46(3):71-75
Studying a single Shāstra (treatise) is not enough to grab the true import of any concept. For a truly inter-disciplinary approach, knowledge of as many allied branches, be it from science or philosophy, is desirable. Nyāya philosophy is a system of logic or rules, whereas Āyurveda is the science of life. The relationship of Manas (~mind) to the body is accepted by both Āyurveda and Nyāya philosophy. In order to gain a better understanding of the concept of Manas, it is necessary to screen the philosophical views, which are present in ancient Āyurvedic as well as Nyāya texts. Therefore, in the current article, an attempt has been made to derive the concept of Manas from Nyāya philosophy as well as Āyurvedic science .
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Personality correlates of mindfulness: A study in an Indian setting: Addendum

July-December 2014, 46(3):92-92
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Great times for great yoga are here to stay!
Praseeda Menon
July-December 2014, 46(3):57-58
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Emerging need for meditation practice in the community
S Ganesh Kumar
July-December 2014, 46(3):90-91
Meditation practice is one of the most important health factors that need attention, especially in developing countries including India. This is keeping in view of the recent increase in the trend of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in the population. The need of the hour is to address the need for practice of meditation at a community level to improve the populace health. This article explains the importance of meditation, its awareness generation, and the factors required to improve its practice in the community.
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Kapālabhāti as a panacea to control aggressive behavior in adolescents
Vikas Kumar Sharma, Pragya Sahare
July-December 2014, 46(3):85-89
Background: Aggression in adolescence is a key point of focus for psychologists, educationists, parents, and teachers. On the other hand, interdisciplinary researches with special reference to yoga and psychology are growing rapidly in this era of applied science. Despite rapidly growing scientific literature on yoga and its application, there has been no study conducted to determine whether Kapālabhāti (a yogic practice) affects the aggression level in adolescents. Aims: The current study aimed at exploring the effect of Kapālabhāti on the aggression level of adolescents. Methods: A sample consisting of 40 intermediate and undergraduate students from Gayatri Vidyapeeth and Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, respectively, was taken. The entire sample belonged to the age group of 15-20 years. Kapālabhāti practice was given to each and every subject of the group for a period of 30 days regularly. In this research, pre-post single-group design has been applied. Participants were given a questionnaire named as "aggression scale" (A-scale) which was developed by Pal and Naqvi (1983) for measurement of aggression score. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired sample t-test and eta-squared statistics have been used for comparing pre- and post-mean scores and computing the magnitude of the effect of intervention, respectively. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in the aggression score from pre-test (M = 63.85, SD = 21.75) to post-test (M = 49.95, SD = 14.53), t (39) = 8.42, P < 0.01 (two-tailed). The mean decrease in aggression score was 13.9 with a 99% confidence interval. The eta-squared statistics was 0.64, which indicates large effect of the intervention on aggression. Conclusions: The findings revealed that the practice of Kapālabhāti is highly effective in reducing the aggression level in participants, which was significant at 0.01 level of significance.
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Manas - A practical facet of Āyurveda
Hetal Amin, Rohit Sharma
July-December 2014, 46(3):64-70
Manas (~mind) is considered as the factor responsible for yoking Ātmā (soul) with Śārïra (body) and Indriya (senses). The concept of Āyu (age) is based on the state of Manas, Manas, which is also referred to as Sattva. It is chiefly responsible for perceiving Sukha (pleasure), Dukha (pain), Hita (wholesome), Ahita (unwholesome), etc. in relation to life. Manas has got a close relationship with health also. This demonstrates the importance of Manas in calling a person Swastha (healthy). An accurate knowledge of Manas is necessary to understand the process of production of Jñāna (knowledge) as explained in Āyurveda. Caraka Sam.hitā, one of the authoritative ancient texts of Āyurveda, gives a precise description of Manas Siddhāñta (principles of the mind) including its normal and abnormal states, but all these descriptions are highly scattered. Seeds of the Āyurvedic concept of Manas are found in different texts, but Āyurveda considers it in an applied and practical way. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the applied aspect of Manas in accordance with Āyurveda.
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