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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2022
Volume 54 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-149

Online since Thursday, December 15, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Meditational processes in the context of mental health Highly accessed article p. 47
Ranjeet Singh Bhogal
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_150_22  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Suryanamaskar performed for a shorter duration matches the exercise intensity of a regular physical education session in adolescent children: A cross-over study Highly accessed article p. 51
Apurv P Shimpi, Jaimala Vijay Shetye, Meenakshi Sureshlal Kewlani
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_81_22  
Context: Adolescent children are provided with lesser exercise duration and intensity due to academic priorities. Suryanamaskar (SN) may be a time-saving solution for their fitness enhancement. Aim: To determine the duration and number of SN required by adolescent children to match the exercise intensity of their regular physical education (PE) session. Materials and Methods: A cross-over study was conducted on 50 children, both genders, with a mean age of 13.9 ± 0.7 years, by a simple random sampling process. Their pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (RR), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured pre- and immediately post participation in their routine PE session. After 24-h washout period, participants performed slow 12-step SN to match the PE session RPE post which their PR, RR, and number of SN performed were measured. Furthermore, their weekly duration of involvement in PE was documented. The PR, RR, and duration of PE/SN were compared using unmatched t-test with α set at ≤0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Results: Adolescent children achieved RPE of 1.9 ± 1.4 post a 33.0 ± 9.0 min PE session which was matched in 9.4 ± 2.3 min of SN session (p < 0.05) at a similar PR (p = 0.25) and RR (p = 0.08). These children were found to be engaged in 75.6 ± 20.3 min of PE activity/week. Conclusion: A 9-min session consisting of nine SN matches the exercise intensity of a routine 33-min PE session in adolescent children.
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Effectiveness of spiritual augmented psychotherapy on resilience and conscience on juvenile delinquents p. 56
Pragya Sahare, Anuradha Kotnala
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_124_22  
Background: Resilience and conscience are the ability to endure adversity without suffering negative consequences. Psychology and spirituality can both be major assets in building resilience and conscientiousness in juvenile delinquents. Aims: The present study aims at exploring the effectiveness of psychological and spiritual techniques in mounting psychological resilience and conscience in juvenile offenders. Methods: The convenience sampling method was used to take 62 respondents for the study. They were chosen from a juvenile shelter home in Haridwar, India. The experimental group, which included 30 participants, received psychospiritual intervention as cognitive-behavioral therapy sessions and Gayatri Mantra Lekhan activity. The control group comprised another 32 volunteers who were assessed using psychometric instruments. Participants were given two psychometric scales named the Child and Youth Resilience Measure and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory for the measurement of resilience and conscientiousness, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: The hypotheses were tested using an independent samples t-test. Results: The experimental group's mean resilience score (mean = 77.93, standard deviation [SD] = 18.28) was statistically significantly greater than the control group's mean resilience score (mean = 44.53, SD = 8.38) with t (60) = 9.35, P = 0.01 (two-tailed). The experimental group's mean conscience score (mean = 35.47, SD = 4.61) is statistically significantly higher than the control group's mean conscience score (mean = 27.34, SD = 6.38) with t (60) =5.71, P = 0.01 (two-tailed). Conclusions: The study reveals that spiritual augmented psychotherapy is significantly associated with increasing the level of resilience and conscience in the study sample.
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Effect of 6 month-yoga training on mental health of Indian jail inmates p. 62
Sadhana Arya, Rameswar Pal, Khushbu Jain, Sachendra Badoni, Jitender Kaushik, Pooja Kumari Gond, Ishwar V Basavaraddi
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_113_22  
Introduction: Prisoners are vulnerable to mental health-related problems. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months Yoga practice on the mental health of jail inmates. The study's main objective was to assess the impact of 6 months of Yoga practice on the mental health of Jail inmates. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 Tihar Jail inmates (27 males and 10 females) participated in the study. With the help of questionnaires, anxiety, depression, stress, aggression, physical health, psychological health, and general well-being of the jail inmates were assessed. The study employed a Single Group Repeated Measures design. Pre and posttest methods were adopted in the study. Results: Significant reduction in stress and aggression and improvement in physical health, psychological health, and general well-being were found after 6 months Yoga-training; however, there was no significant reduction in anxiety and depression in the combined group. In male inmates, anxiety, depression, stress, and aggression were reduced significantly, and their physical health, psychological health, and general well-being significantly improved after 6 months of Yoga training. In female inmates, aggression got reduced after 6 months of regular Yoga practice; but no significant changes were found in other parameters. Conclusion: Regular Yoga practice for 6 months significantly improved the mental health of Tihar Jail inmates, especially male inmates. However, there is a need to conduct more studies to confirm the results.
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Intensive integrated yoga therapy on lipid profile, body composition, and insulin resistance among Type 2 diabetes mellitus p. 70
Ashween Bilagi, Jintu Kurian, Shilpa Bilagi
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_108_22  
Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is a leading cause of the onset of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among overweight and obese individuals irrespective of their age. This study aimed at assessing the impact of 2 weeks of intensive integrated yoga therapy (IIYT) among overweight individuals diagnosed with T2DM identified with higher IR. Methodology: The current single-group longitudinal pre–post study enrolled adults (n = 30) from a residential health-care center, Bengaluru (India), who were subjected to IIYT, comprising practices at physical, emotional, and intellectual levels incorporating āsana (postures), prāṇāyāma (breathing exercise), kriyā (internal cleansing technique), meditation, notional correction, counseling, yogic diet, and devotional sessions. Pre- and postoutcome measures were homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, body composition, and anthropometric measurements. Results: A significant reduction in HOMA-IR (35.69%, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (28%, p < 0.001), fasting glucose (12.3%, p = 0.039), triglycerides (15.43%, p = 0.003), very low-density lipoprotein (15.5%, p = 0.003), body mass index (2.4%, p < 0.001), weight (2.3%, p < 0.001), hip circumference (1.01%, p < 0.001), waist circumference (1.4%, p < 0.001), and body fat percentage (1.8%, p = 0.039) and a significant increase in lean mass percentage (0.95%, p = 0.045) and water percentage (0.99%, p = 0.04) were observed among the subjects. Conclusion: Regular practice of IIYT regulates lipid and anthropometric measures and increases lean body mass, thereby managing IR, among overweight Type 2 diabetes. However, future works might confirm the findings of the present study.
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Effect of structured supervised yoga on stress, anxiety, and depression during a pandemic situation among the population of an urban resettlement colony of Delhi: A quasi-experimental study p. 78
Suprakash Mandal, Puneet Misra, Shashi Kant, Meenu Sangral, Priyanka Kardam
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_107_22  
Background: Increased level of stress has a potential impact on physical, mental, and social well-being. It was seen aggravated during the global pandemic situation of COVID-19. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the effect of a community-based structured yoga program on the level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based quasi-experimental study of pre–post in type involving 26 adult participants without any preexisting morbidity. All of them were provided 12 weeks of structured yoga program of 50 min/session, ≥2 sessions/week. Psychometric questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), stress biomarker serum cortisol, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and rate pressure product were used to assess the primary and secondary outcome variables. Results: A total of 26 participants (male: 6 and female: 20) were enrolled and 18 participants completed the follow-up assessment. The median number of yoga sessions attended was 22. At the end of 12 weeks, there was a significant reduction of the stress component of DASS-21 (p: 0.0018) and the serum cortisol level (p: 0.032). Other variables had a reduction but it was not significant. No adverse effect was reported by the participants. Conclusions: This community-based yoga study showed beneficial effects among the participants. The stress level was found reduced significantly. However, the sustainable effect needed to be assessed further.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Yoga for children with autism spectrum disorder: A descriptive review p. 83
Sindhu Shanker, Balaram Pradhan
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_62_22  
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates a multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder exhibiting distinct core characteristics of lifelong deficits in social communication and interaction along with restricted, repetitive behaviors. This developmental disorder impacts the achievement of developing milestones during childhood. Apart from the core features of autism, children with ASD display a range of behavioral disorders and physiological dysfunctions, creating a unique heterogeneity in their symptomatology. Conventional therapies are adopted to address such issues with specific treatments suited to the individual needs of children with ASD. As a therapeutic modality, yoga is also recognized as an alternative therapy that can help manage various symptoms of autism. A mind-body intervention yoga applies movement, breathing, and relaxation to nurture holistic well-being in children. This review describes the various studies on yoga as an effective intervention for children with ASD in managing the several aspects of autism. They were searched through Google Scholar and PubMed, and a total of 16 empirical studies were identified on yoga intervention on various behavioral and physiological aspects of autism in children. The current literature on the efficacy of yoga on children with ASD is limited. There is a need for further research for evidence-based studies to highlight yoga as a holistic modality in the management of ASD.
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A global research trend in AUM meditation: A bibliometric analysis of past five decades p. 92
Medha Bhatt, Akshay Vashisht, Rupam Verma, Anuradha Gupta, Rohit , Vedpriya Arya
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_80_22  
The scientific community has long been interested in mantras and meditation. However, very little study has been done on specific mantras such as AUM. The major goal of this bibliometric study is to aid AUM meditation research by finding all connected publications and subject coverage, as well as uncovering historical trends, active research domains, prominent journals, authors, organizations, and nations, as well as linkages between them. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria were used to search the Dimensions.ai database for AUM-related articles. VOS-viewer was utilized to reveal emergent trends and transitory patterns in the literature, as well as to demonstrate international collaboration, organizational coupling, and co-cited author networks. After a thorough screening and extensive article reading, fifty studies were chosen for the study. According to the findings, India produced the majority of data. More than half (62%) of the publications were in the field of “Medical and Health”, and about one-sixth (16%) were in “Psychology and Cognitive Sciences”. Based on Publications “The International Journal of Yoga” has the most publications (26.66%) and citations (40.87%). The strongest linkages are found in “Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan (952)”, “India (101)”, and “National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (192)”. This bibliometric analysis synthesized and illustrated 48 years of AUM meditation research, indicating key highlights, and rising trends. The findings of the study contribute to the creation of a platform for future research in the field of AUM meditation.
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Sleep disorders and its consequences on biopsychosocial health: A narrative review p. 101
Kanika Verma, Deepeshwar Singh, Alok Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_82_22  
Sleep disorders are often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Fewer than 20% of people with insomnia are correctly diagnosed and treated, even though a significant portion of the population suffers from severe sleep disorders that necessitate medical attention. Excessive sleepiness and restless leg syndrome have even worse statistics, with only limited cases correctly diagnosed and treated. Insomnia and excessive sleepiness have a wide range of effects on people's lives, including their professional, social, and family lives, concentration, and memory. In addition, a sleepy person is more likely to be involved in a car, workplace, or domestic accident. This review aimed to search and explore literature regarding sleep and normal physiology and its impact on physical and mental health. We also searched for sleep disorders and their consequences on cognitive dysfunction and clinical and complementary approaches to managing sleep disorders. We browsed Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases till November 30, 2021. The high prevalence rates of insomnia indicate a significant public health concern that necessitates education and prevention efforts and increased attention from health-care professionals. This review highlighted the importance of timely screening and managing sleep disorders to prevent their consequences and discussed the evidence of complementary and alternative therapy for managing them.
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A review on the physiological and therapeutic effects of Śankhaprakṣhālana kriyā (yogic bowel cleansing) p. 112
Jaydeep Negi, Abhishek Kumar Bhardwaj, Sachin Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_75_22  
Śankhaprakṣhālana (SP) kriyā is an integral component of ṣaṭkarmas (the six cleansing practices of Haṭha Yoga). It involves drinking lukewarm salt water in combination with dynamic yoga āsanas which leads to the cleansing of the entire alimentary canal. The objectives of this study are to systematically elucidate the practice of SP kriyā and to collate and review studies that highlight its immediate and long-term physiological and therapeutic effects. Keywords such as “shankha prakshalana, laghu shankha prakshalana, varisara dhauti, and yogic colon cleansing” were used for search in multiple research databases. A total of 12 studies with SP kriyā as the main intervention were included in this review. Eight studies have reported the immediate effects of SP. The practice of SP immediately benefits in primary hypertension and chronic low back pain. Clinical studies support its effective use as a colonoscopy preparation. There is no risk of electrolyte imbalance, blood pressure, and pulse rate changes in healthy individuals after SP. The technique of drinking saline along with dynamic āsanas plays a significant role in faster bowel cleansing. Other four studies have reported the long-term (1–2 months) effects of SP with variations in the frequency and duration of practice. SP is found beneficial in managing digestive issues such as constipation, migraine-associated abdominal discomfort, and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also an effective weight management practice for obese. Hence, the practice offers diverse health benefits. Further clinical trials are required to support the findings in clinical populations and to determine the effective frequency and total duration of the practice in the long term.
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Global research trend on yoga intervention in educational systems: A bibliometric study of three decades p. 119
Rupam Verma, Akshay Vashisht, Medha Bhatt, Anuradha Gupta, Rohit Om, Anurag Dabas, Vedpriya Arya
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_60_22  
Yoga is being used as a mind-body complementary and alternative medicine intervention to help people with specific physical and mental health issues. In terms of the study area, yoga is an attractive field with various scopes and also contributes to scientific research. In this context, the current study is simply aimed at fully identifying the function of yoga intervention on students in academic institutions, as well as evaluating the available research data in this sector. A search query of relevant keywords was strategized and optimized to extract the information of research articles published from 1992 to 2021 from the “Dimention.ai” database. The obtained dataset was analyzed using PRISMA to evaluate the effect of interventions. The results indicate that the United States has published the maximum number of scholarly publications (553) among all countries. If we talk about organisation Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana from India has published the most of the articles (39) in the field of yoga education. The journal “Mindfulness” (14) and author “Shirley Telles” (14) from the “Patanjali Research Foundation-India” have published the highest scholarly articles. In the bibliometric coupling of distinct clusters, the strongest link strengths among the authors, countries, and organizations were observed for “Khalsa, Satbir S.” (4915), “The United States” (47347), and “Harvard University” (8485), respectively. The current study indicated that yoga education studies have a huge spectrum of publications. Moreover, these bibliometric indicators provide significant endpoints to evaluate research output productivity and quality. The study's findings aid in developing a framework for additional research in the field of yoga and its usage in the academic environment.
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Yoga and attention: A systematic review p. 128
Kanchan Yadav, Arti Yadav, Sandeep Singh
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_66_22  
In modern times, people are suffering from numerous types of difficulties. Stress and mental problems have become part of one's life. Excessive use of mobile phones, other electronic devices, and drug intake has caused many cognitive and mental problems. Attention, memory, and cognitive functions are affected by electronic and digital devices. Previous studies have shown that yoga can reduce stress and anxiety and improve cognitive functions such as attention and memory. The patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome search strategy was used to identify the keywords. Using the key words “yoga and attention,” 285 studies were identified from three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct) and a search engine (Google Scholar). For discussion, 18 studies were included in the review. There was a wide range of age groups where the effectiveness of yoga on attention had been researched. This systematic review also revealed that attention in children also depends on memory development and anxiety. The particular study on the systematic reviews showed the high effectiveness of yoga, yogic exercises, mindfulness, and other yogic techniques on the level of attention among children. The study also revealed the coexistence of attention with memory development.
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Yoga as a complementary and alternative therapy for cardiopulmonary functions p. 133
Vipin Rathore, Nidheesh Yadav
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_95_22  
Complementary and alternatiASve therapy is a rapidly growing area in the biomedical sciences, in which Yoga therapy has arisen at the frontlines of holistic medical care and is perceived as a form of mind-body practise because of its long history of connecting physical, mental, and spiritual well-being with the coalescence of physical postures (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). This study aims to review the emerging evidence assessing the physiologic and clinical effects of Yoga on cardiopulmonary functions. The authors searched the PubMed (Medline) and Science Direct databases and the Google Scholar search engine, as well as a reference list of related articles, for literature related to the effect of yoga on pulmonary function, cardiovascular function, and cardiopulmonary functions from 2000 to 2021. Yoga has been shown to have favorable effects on the various parameters of cardiovascular and pulmonary functions. Yoga has emerged as a beneficial lifestyle intervention that can be incorporated into cardiovascular and pulmonary disease management methods. Although numerous researchers have reported the clinical benefits of Yoga in reducing cardiopulmonary-related events, morbidity, and mortality, the evidence supporting these conclusions is somewhat limited, thereby stressing the requirement for large, well-designed randomised trials that limit bias and methodological drawbacks.
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General features, types, techniques, benefits, safety and adverse effects related to Pranayamas mentioned in traditional Hatha Yoga texts: A review on Pranayama chapters p. 140
Dipak Chetry, Prerna , Dilip Kumar Rajak, Archana Chhetri
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_56_22  
Pranayama is one of the most important and widely practiced components of Hatha Yoga. Among the traditional Hatha Yoga texts, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika (HYP) and Gheranda Samhita (GS) (written between 1200 A.D. and 1857 A.D.) are the two most influential and practical foundational texts on Pranayama, which are very useful even till date. Previously published reviews on Hatha Yoga texts only cover the brief overview, concept of Kundalini, concept of Pranayamas, and comparative study on Asanas. The present study was conducted to systematically review: (1) the general features of Pranayama practices, (2) types and techniques of Pranayama practices, (3) the benefits of Pranayama practices, and (4) safety and adverse effects related to Pranayama practices mentioned in HYP and GS. The original verses written in Sanskrit were translated into English for correct interpretation of the general features, types, techniques, benefits, safety, and adverse effects related to Pranayama as mentioned in the two Hatha Yoga texts. In this review, the verses on Pranayama are systematically reviewed, arranged, and presented under the four mentioned points.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Top

Common errors while working on yoga intervention randomized controlled trials p. 147
Mohit Nirwan
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_134_22  
There is a steady rise in interest among researchers in exploring the effect of yoga on various disease conditions, improving holistic health in a healthy population. Innumerous studies have already highlighted the benefits, but integrating yoga into mainstream modern medicine remains a distant goal. The prominent reason is because of poor-quality trials in yoga research. Therefore, the significant vital issues which should be addressed to improve randomized controlled trials in yoga research are discussed.
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