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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2021
Volume 53 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-77

Online since Wednesday, July 21, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Calming the mind through yoga amid the COVID pandemic p. 1
Ranjeet Singh Bhogal
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_66_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Impact of Sanskrit prosody on anxiety, mindfulness, and self-concept in young adolescents: A four-armed control trial p. 4
Mollika Ganguly, Sriloy Mohanty, Sampadananda Mishra, Sanjib Patra, Monika Jha
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_19_21  
Background: Upsurge in anxiety and struggle with self-concept commonly appears during adolescence. Chanting of many forms have been established to improve emotional personality features. Aim and Objectives: We conducted a four-armed comparative study to explore the capacity of Chanda/prosody to impact anxiety, mindfulness, and self-concept in young adolescents. Material and Methods: A total of 140 students (12.12 ± 0.74 years) were screened, out of which 138 met the inclusion criteria and were allocated into four groups: humming a Chanda, chanting a Sanskrit verse, reading an English phrase (EP), and silent sitting. Baseline and postintervention data were collected using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale for Children, and Children's Self-Concept Scale. Result: Our study results reveal that there was a significant reduction in anxiety levels in the humming group and few domains of anxiety in the chanting group as well. The mindfulness scores were significantly improved in all the four groups including the humming and chanting groups after the interventions. Conclusion: There was no effect on self-concept scores in the humming group whereas the chanting group had a significant improvement in self-concept scale.
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Effect of yogic intervention on quality of life in university girls with cyclical mastalgia p. 12
Garima Jaiswal, Ghanshyam Singh Thakur
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_6_21  
Background: Cyclical mastalgia is a benign breast disease and common phenomena in the reproductive age of women. It is the pain in the breast mainly felt in previous 5–7 days of the mensuration cycle. This affects the overall quality of life (QOL) and is linked to fear, fatigue, and other psychological causes. Fear of breast cancer influences the state of mind and badly affect emotional health and entire physical health. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of yogic practice on QOL in girls with cyclical mastalgia. Methods: Forty females having cyclical mastalgia (last 6 months) were recruited for the study and randomly assigned into two groups (yoga group and control group) with the age range of 20 to 30 years (23.52 ± 2.28). The subjects of both the groups were assessed for quality of life at the baseline and after completion of experimental period of sixty days. Results: After completing 60 days yogic intervention, yoga group showed significant improvement after 2 months of yoga practices and even after the 1-month follow-up in physical health (<0.01), sociological health (<0.05), environmental health (<0.05), and overall QOL (<0.05) than the control group. Psychological health showed the significant effect after 1 month of follow-up (>0.05). Conclusion: The results of present study concludes that the quality of life of university girls suffering from cyclical mastalgia can be improved after yoga practices.
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Yoga and naturopathy -based lifestyle during quarantine for the prevention of COVID-19: A pilot cohort study p. 18
A Mooventhan, K Kahlilsubramanian, N Manavalan
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_23_20  
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) known as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2. It is transmitted through infected patients' droplet and contact. Individuals with chronic cardiorespiratory diseases are mostly affected. Yoga and naturopathy are commonly employed in the prevention and management of cardiorespiratory diseases. This is the first-ever study conducted to find the impact of yoga and naturopathy-based lifestyle (YNBLS) on frequency of conversion of positive cases during COVID-19 quarantine period. Material and Methods: In this pilot cohort study, 43 participants those who had exposure with COVID-19-positive case (self-quarantined individuals) and adopted YNBLS after exposure were observed till the COVID-19 swab test results had come. Results: Of 43-participants' swab-test for COVID-19, none of the participant test has turned into positive for COVID-19. Conclusion: Results suggest that adopting YNBLS during the quarantine period might be considered as an effective strategy for the prevention of COVID-19.
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Bhagvad Gita, gut microbiota, and mental health p. 22
Hitesh Chandrakant Sheth
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_24_20  
There is a mysterious relationship between the diet and human behavior, which is reflected in the writings of many ancient scientists and philosophers and the same thing is also echoed in day-to-day conversations of many cultures, interspersed with nuggets of ancient wisdom. However, it is hard to find a standard classification in the modern science that links different diets to various human behavioral patterns. The recent research shows that, although gut microbiota residing in a human body influences its physical health and mental health, their diversity can be influenced by human dietary patterns. Thus, along with the medicine, diet too has emerged as a key player in the regulation of our physical and mental health. Therefore, dietary modification along with necessary medicines may be recommended for the management of various physical and mental disorders.
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The ideal yogi: A man without qualities p. 31
Tommaso Bianchi
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_22_21  
Introduction: The comparison between East and West can be played at different levels. At a religious level, we find numerous analogies. On a more cultural level, we may detect more differences than identities. Culture in the West has long been represented by literature. Perhaps, it is to the latter that Westerners have entrusted the expression of their ideal of man. It may therefore be interesting to make comparisons with the figure of the ideal yogi as it was outlined in India. Materials and Methods: On the one hand, some recent masters and some older texts on yoga have been examined and compared with some European writers, as far as they say about the ideal of man. Results: We found that the Western man, in XIX and XX centuries, has gone through a crisis. This crisis does not seem to have touched Indian thought, at least as far as yoga is concerned. The ideal of the yogi in India has withstood the blows of criticism to which the concept of ego in the West has been subjected. Discussion: While in the West, the ego was considered as a sovereign that performs acts of government and when it fails, a crisis occurs, in yoga, the ahaṃkāra is an aspect that must be transcended in the direction of a further development of the self. These differences in the conception of ego may partially explain the success and spread of yoga in the West.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Concept of Ānanda in Śrīmad Bhāgavad Gītā p. 35
Lokesh Choudhary, Upendra Babu Khatri, Nandlal Mishra
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_2_21  
The Vedanta is prominent philosophies among Indian philosophical traditions. It announces that every organism lives for ānanda. Whatever the people do in their life is for the sake of happiness, but happiness is not the thing which can be bought by expensed money in the market or can be borrowed from outside. It is the eternal thing which can be obtained only by elevation in human consciousness. It describes the fundamentals of the ānanda in detailed way with fundamental notions. The most popular and much-discussed text Śrīmad Bhāgavad Gītā also elaborates this concept of ānanda in a scattered way. Mostly, Gītā is perceived as a religious and action, motivating text while the other aspects are still hidden and untouched. There is no systematic research found on the elaboration of the ānanda and its acquiring methodology. This research study discusses the concept of ānanda from various perspectives of description acquired by the Sri Krishna while explaining the ultimate truth to the Arjuna. It also investigates the description with their attaining methodologies and practices that can be applicable in day-to-day life.
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Yoga for improving mood and cognitive functions – A brief review p. 39
Narottam Kumar, Udham Singh
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_11_21  
Generally speaking, people are vulnerable to face rigorous work and learn how to enhance cognitive functions by improving mood state. The extant research evidence appears to support the proposition that yoga may improve mood and cognitive functions of the various populations. Balanced mood state plays a precious role in cognition, quality of life, and successful life. This review highlights the effect of yoga practices on improving mood and cognition and also provides inculcation of various yogic practices as a therapy to improve mood that leads to better cognitive function. It has been found that mood disturbance may lead to poorer cognition and cognitive impairment. Good cognitive functions depend on healthy frontal lobes of the brain and mood states. Therefore, there is need to populate the insights that healthy mood may lead to better cognition as a result of yoga interventions.
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Integrating yoga with education in the modern schooling system: A theoretical model based on ancient knowledge and modern research p. 46
Atul Sinha, Sony Kumari
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_14_21  
The aim of this paper is to make a case for integrating yoga with education in the modern schooling system and to propose a theoretical model based on a synthesis of ancient knowledge and modern research. The paper is based on literature review of child and adolescent mental health, case for character education, case for school-based yoga intervention, ancient texts of yoga, and modern research on benefit outcomes of yoga. A comprehensive understanding of yogic principles from ancient texts and outcome benefits from modern research has gone into the development of a theoretical model of yoga in education. There is a large body of research evidence, suggesting that yoga in education can aid the development of physiological well-being, cognitive efficacy, emotional control, and desirable personality traits. Ancient literature on yoga provides its underlying principles, sequence of practices, and their interconnectedness. The theoretical model is based on the eight limbs of yoga derived from ancient literature. Modern research provides the evidence of benefits. The benefits show that yoga may aid in the development of the whole child, character building, social-emotional learning training, and developing the power of concentration. These findings make a compelling case for the inclusion of yoga in the school curricula. Most researches into school-based yoga have varying degrees of rigor in methodology and are based on short periods of interventions. If yoga in education is widely implemented, it will provide an opportunity for more methodologically rigorous research as well as longitudinal studies. This will help to both improve the school-based yoga programs and build more solid evidence of its efficacy. This paper is unique because it juxtaposes the process-based ancient knowledge and outcome-based modern research. This allows for a more comprehensive theoretical model of yoga in education.
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Vidyaranyamuni ‘ten men story’ from Panchadasi as an illustration for Advaitic ‘self-realization’ p. 59
Ravi Kumar Reddy Juturi
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_1_21  
The article dwells on a Mantra from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. This Mantra contains the essence of Vedanta. Vidyaranya Muni in Panchadasi Text writes the biggest chapter (seventh chapter) 290 Verses on this one Mantra. Four aspects are to be understood from this Mantra to understand the spiritual process in Advaitic realization. The first one is the realization, which means realizing who or what am 'I' truly (individual 'I' or Jiva). As a result, the negation of worldly enjoyments (Bogya Nisheda) means nothing in this world becomes an object worth pursuing, so one transcends this stage. The next aspect of the Mantra signifies for whose sake am 'I' (Jiva) doing all this? Hence, the 'enjoyer' or the 'person' who is trying to get pleasures, satisfaction, and enjoyment in this world must inquire into 'that;' it is nothing but the negation of the enjoyer (Boktri Nisheda). The third aspect of Mantra deals with what is there to be desired in this world from the point of realized 'self'. As a result of this process, the 'One' who thinks an 'individual being' having the body and mind and trying to attain certain goals in life, that 'One' is dissolved. Finally, suffering along with the 'body and mind' complex is transcended, this is called liberation while living (Jivanmukti); it means that life continues with the body and mind but amidst this 'realized one' transcends suffering; this is called living in the body yet transcending the body. These four aspects have dwelled in this article with the help of 'Ten men story' from a sacred text called Panchadasi written by Vidyaranya Muni.
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Prayers and healing an interdependent relation p. 64
BR Divya, Keshavamurthy
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_3_21  
The human world is realizing and giving importance to prayers and its healing effect throughout the world. In times of natural crisis, public health emergency like COVID 19 pandemic, it has even garnered more attention. There are many evidence based research that proves the benefits of such practices. This paper reviews the effect of prayer and its role in managing, coping and healing during the time of crisis.
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Kapalabhati: A physiological healer in human physiological system p. 69
Mansi Vaid, Sanjay Verma
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_28_21  
The purpose of this article is to aware people about the yogic technique of Kapalabhati and its benefits. It clearly explains how Kapalabhati helps in prevention and cure of various health issues in different physiological systems in the human body. This review focuses on the role of kapalabhati in maintaining the normal functioning of organs and its contribution to curing different ailments in the human body. All the information that is given in this article is consulted from different websites, journal articles, and books and is written in a way suitable for reading even to the common public. The review discloses that Kapalabhati is that high-frequency breathing exercise, which promotes overall well-being and cures diseases. This study mainly focuses on cure of number of illnesses caused due to unhealthy living habits, impurities and different types of pollutants present in the environment, and inhalation of harmful nanoparticles and other factors responsible for creating severe to major problems in the human body. Kapalabhati works in a curative and revolutionary way to cope with the health issues and improves the overall function of the body.
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CASE REPORT Top

Effect of naturopathy and yoga therapies as an adjuvant to conventional medicine in the management of COVID-19 p. 75
A Mooventhan, N Manavalan, Y Deepa, N Mangaiarkarasi, K Kahlilsubramanian, L Nivethitha
DOI:10.4103/ym.ym_22_20  
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the infectious disease affecting many countries globally. This case study was performed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effect of integrated naturopathy and yoga therapies (INYT) (i.e., conventional medicine + yoga and naturopathy) on the number of hospital stay and symptom score in a patient with COVID-19. A 39-year-old married male was diagnosed with COVID-19 on March 27, 2020. During the hospital stay, the patient underwent INYT. Adherence to INYT was good and the patient did not report any serious adverse effects during the intervention period. The length of hospital stay was 11 days. Which is less than the median hospital stay observed in previous studies and the symptom score reduced from 6 (day 1) to 0 (day 6). Thus, INYT might reduce the length of the hospital stay with symptoms and active infection and also is feasible and safe in a patient with COVID-19.
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