|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 122-128
Sthiti and Yatna in the Abhyāsa of Yoga: A Textual Study Based on 15 Saṃskṛta Commentaries of Yogasūtra
Division of Textual Research - Yoga, Indic Academy; Department of Research, Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||16-Jul-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||21-Oct-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||22-Dec-2021|
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Awareness about Yoga as a system of healing has increased in the current era. Various limbs of Yoga with their therapeutic benefits are being practiced and their efficacy is being investigated. But Yoga is not a onetime pill. It has to be practiced in a sustained and beneficial manner over a period of time for its benefits to manifest.
Aim and Objectives: In Yogic parlance Abhyāsa is the term generally used to indicate practice. Yogasūtra, the fundamental text on Yoga defines Abhyāsa. In this context a comprehensive review of Yogasūtra Saṃskṛta commentary literature with specific focus on the definition of Abhyāsa is essential, which has hitherto not been attempted.
Material and Methods: Fifteen Saṃskṛta commentaries have been surveyed and analysed for the current paper with focus on the definition of abhyāsa found in the sūtra - tatra sthitau yatno'bhyāsaḥ PYS 1.13.
Result: The analysis of the Saṃskṛta commentary literature on this offers clarifications on the two sthiti-s of Yoga that is to be attained through the Yatna that has five dimensions.
Conclusion: Though the inputs from the commentary lore discuss Abhyāsa in the spiritual, philosophical context- the implications of Abhyāsa in the therapeutic dimensions of Yoga are immensely useful. The outcomes of this textual review on being imbibed and incorporated in the practice of Yoga may add to the quality of Yoga practice there by facilitating better outcomes in Yoga aimed at health and wellbeing.
Keywords: Abhyāsa, sthiti, Yatna, yoga
|How to cite this article:|
Mahadevan J. Sthiti and Yatna in the Abhyāsa of Yoga: A Textual Study Based on 15 Saṃskṛta Commentaries of Yogasūtra. Yoga Mimamsa 2021;53:122-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Mahadevan J. Sthiti and Yatna in the Abhyāsa of Yoga: A Textual Study Based on 15 Saṃskṛta Commentaries of Yogasūtra. Yoga Mimamsa [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jul 3];53:122-8. Available from: https://www.ym-kdham.in/text.asp?2021/53/2/122/333357
| Introduction|| |
Awareness about Yoga as a system of healing has increased in the current era. Various limbs of Yoga with their therapeutic benefits are being practiced, and their efficacy is being investigated. However, Yoga is not a onetime pill. It has to be practiced in a sustained and beneficial manner over a period of time for its benefits to manifest. In Yogic parlance, abhyāsa is the term generally used to indicate practice. Yogasūtra, the fundamental text on Yoga, defines abhyāsa. The definition of abhyāsa is found in the sūtra - tatra sthitau yatnā'bhyāsaḥ PYS 1.13 – The Yatna (effort) toward attainment of sthiti (calm state) is abhyāsa. A systematic review of Yogasūtra Saṃskṛta commentary literature with specific focus on this definition of abhyāsa is attempted herein which has hitherto not been attempted. Fifteen Saṃskṛta commentaries have been consulted for the current analysis. Such a discussion helps in understanding the traditional perspective on Yoga-abhyāsa. This might contribute to better practice and training of Yoga.
| Commentaries Consulted for the Study|| |
The Saṃskṛta commentaries that were consulted for the study on Yoga-abhyāsa are as follows (chronologically arranged) – (1) Commentary of Sage Vyāsa – Vyāsa-bhāāya (3rd or 4th CE); (2) Tattva-vaiśāradṭ of Vācaspati Miṡra (9−10th CE); (3) Bhoja-vṛtti/Rāja-mārtāṇḍa of Bhoja (10th century CE); (4) Vivaraṇa of Śaṁ…kara-Bhagavatpāda (13th century[?]); (5) Yogavārṭṭkā of Vijñānabhikṡu (15th century CE); (6) Pātañjalarahasya of Rāghavānanda (16th century CE); (7) Maṇi-prabhā of Rāmānanda-yati (16th century CE); (8) Pradṭpa of Bhāva-gaṇeśa (17th century CE); (9) Vṛttiḥ of Nāgojṭ-bhaṭṭa (18th century); (10 and 11) Yogasiddhānta-candrikā and Sutrārthabodhinṭ by Nārāyaṇatṭrtha (18th century CE); (12) Yoga-sudhākaraḥ of Sadāśivendra-sarasvatṭ (18−19th century CE); (13) Candrikā of Ananta-deva-paṇḍita (19th century CE); (14) Bhāsvatṭ of Hariharānanda Āraṇya (19th century CE); and (15) Yoga-vallṭ of Śrṭkṛāṇamācārya (20th century).
| AbhyāSa in YogasūTra|| |
The term “Abhyāsa” appears four times in Yogasūtra connected in the three contexts. The three contexts are as follows-
- First context (two sūtras): Abhyāsavairāgyābhyāṁ tannirodhaḥ ‖ PYS 1.12 ‖ tatra sthitau yatnā'bhyāsaḥ ‖PYS 1.13‖
- Second context: Virāmapratyayābhyāsapūrvaḥ saṁskāraśeāo'nyaḥ ‖ PYS 1.18 ‖
- Third context: Tatpratiāedhārthamekatattvābhyāsaḥ ‖ PYS 1.32 ‖.
Of these three - the first context can be called as Yoga abhyāsa - as it is prescribed directly for Yoga (Citta-Vṛtti-Nirodha). The other two occurrences are for attaining specific ends, namely - Asaṃprajñāta-Samādhi and overcoming the obstacles in the path of Yoga, respectively. Asaṃprajñāta-Samādhi is a very high state of Yoga accessible to very advanced practitioners and obstacles in the path are to be managed as and when they manifest in the course of Yoga-abhyāsa. Thus, these two do not represent the entire gamut of Yoga practice. They are but the aspects of Yoga practice.
In contrast, the first context of occurrence of the term abhyāsa is connected directly with Yoga which is Citta-Vṛtti-Nirodha. Moreover, unlike in the other two contexts − in the first context, the term abhyāsa is defined. Furthermore, as this definition is pervasive – the inputs and approaches from here can be applied to the other two less pervasive abhyāsa in Yogasūtra also.
| Etymological Derivation of AbhyāSa|| |
Before going into the commentarial treatment of the term, it would be useful to look into the grammatical derivation of the term. Vācaspatya, a Saṃskṛta - Saṃskṛta dictionary (Tarka vācaspati, 1873, Vol. 1, p. 312), provides the following etymology -
asu — kāepe karmmaṇi ghañ
Ābhimukhyena - towards (something), asyate kāipyate - something being thrown
Throwing/directing something toward some goal.
Asu is the root and in the passive voice the influx ghañ (is added).
As could be seen, abhyāsa is throwing or directing or channelizing (efforts) toward some goal or objective.
| The Definition of AbhyāSa in Yoga-SūTra of Sage of PatañJali|| |
In Sūtra 1.13 Sage, Patañjali himself defines the term abhyāsa. The sūtra and a direct translation of it is as follows -
tatra sthitau yatnā'bhyāsaḥ
Between the two means, practice is the effort to stay in the restricted state.
(Rukmani, 2007, p. 93)
There are four terms in the sūtra - tatra, sthitau, yatnāḥ, and abhyāsaḥ. Of these four terms, Abhyāsa is the term to be defined. The term tatra - (meaning - there - among the two - abhyāsa and Vairagya) - simply shows the connection of this sūtra with the previous Sūtra - where abhyāsa and Vairagya were presented as the two methods of Nirodha of Citta.
As such, the two middle terms in the sūtra – sthitau and yatnāḥ – are the ones that are the essential components of the definition. These two terms together translate as - toward Sthiti the Yatna.
Sthiti is opposed to Gati (movement). Hence, generally points to stillness, absence of movement. Saptamṭ Vibhakti/locative case form of the word Sthiti (which leads to the form sthitau – seen in the text) here indicates nimitta - purpose (nimittārtheyaṁ saptamṭ - Vivaraṇam (Śāstrṭ & Śāstrṭ, 1951, p. 42). Yatna is effort.
Hence, grammatically, the sūtra means – the yatna (effort) for the purpose of (attainment of) Sthiti (stillness/steadiness of the mind) is Yoga-abhyāsa.
As could be observed, the definition on Yoga-abhyāsa has two parts –
- Yoga-sthiti that is to be attained
- Yoga-yatna (Yogic effort) that is to be done toward that Yoga-sthiti.
The article first presents the discussion on the term Sthiti, and then, Yatna is taken up and observations of the Saṃskṛta commentaries are presented and analyzed.
On the term “Sthiti,” one finds divergent views in the commentaries. [Table 1] (Refer: Views on Sthiti) presents the various shades of meanings that are found to the term Sthiti from the 15 commentaries consulted.
Analysis of the views of the commentaries on Yoga-sthiti
As is evident from the table, although there are five different views - these can be classified into three -
- Sthiti as a state bereft of any citta-vṛtti and praśānta-vāhitā − It is evident from the table above that - Vyāsa-bhāāya, Vivaraṇa, and Yoga-sudhākara subscribe to this view. The terms such as Nirodha (cessation/restrain) and naiścalya (stillness) are used in these commentaries. While Bhoja-vṛtti accepts this view (citta being bereft of activities), it is also stated here that the mind attains modification to be established in the nature of self (svarūpa-niāṭha pariṇāma). It is also to be noted here that along with the absence of Vṛttis - a peaceful flow of mind (praśānta-vāhitā) is also mentioned as an aspect of sthiti by these commentaries. In that sense, the view of Yoga-vallṭ also comes under this category, although it does not speak about the presence or absence of Vṛttis in this state
- Sthiti as a state of Ekāgratā (one-pointed flow of activities of mind) - Most other commentaries other than the above and Bhāsvatṭ fall under the category. The various terms in these commentaries to describe this state along with the term Ekāgratā include Sāttvika-virtti (Tattva-vaiśāradṭ, Maṇi-prabhā, Nāgojṭbhaṭṭa-vṛtti Virtti, Sūtrarthabodhi), Vṛtyantara-śūnya - absence of other vṛttis that those intended (Yoga-vārttika), and Citta-sthairya - steadiness of the mind (Maṇi-prabhā). Yoga-siddhanta-candrikā mentions that the state of Ekāgratā is to keep the mind focused on Paramātman. (as the term, Paramātman is not found Yogasūtras - this can be understood as a Vedāntic influence on the commentator)
- Sthiti both as a state of bereft of Vṛtti and also endowed with Virtti - The above two seemingly opposing views are harmonized by Bhāsvatṭ commentary where it presents that - Sthiti in its higher state does not have any Vṛttis, and in working toward this higher state, there is a lower state which is Ekāgratā (single-pointed focus).
Thus the three views on Yoga-sthiti, chronologically presented from the commentaries, bring forth the points of divergences and the resolution of the divergences as well, in the form of the views of Bhāsvatṭ - the third view - which is also chronologically later (19−20th century).
It emerges, going based on Bhāsvatṭ commentary, that Yoga-sthiti, which is the goal of Yoga-abhyāsa, has two levels that are to be progressively realized.
- Mukhya-sthiti - Primary state - which is bereft of Vṛttis, which is characterized by the peaceful flow of the mind
- Tadanukūla-Sthiti - Conducive state - is a state of single-pointed focus (Ekāgratā) and steadiness of mind that is conducive to attain the Mukhya-sthiti.
Thus, it becomes clear that it is these two hierarchically arranged Yoga-sthitis toward which Yatna of Yoga has to be directed in the process of Yoga-abhyāsa.
Now, let us turn the focus on the other critical term that is part of the definition of Yoga-abhyāsa - “Yatna” - the effort that leads to the aforementioned Yoga-sthitis. [Table 2] (Refer: Views on Yatna) presents the views regarding Yatna in various commentaries consulted for this study.
Analysis of the views of the commentaries on Yatna
The following can be noted from the views of the commentaries tabulated above:
- With regard to Yatna toward the attainment of the Sthiti described earlier - Vyāsa-bhāāya's description is the most comprehensive - where three important components are stated-
- Desire to achieve the goal
- Practice of steps/methods.
While Bhāsvatṭ subcommentary agrees and explains the above three-fold views without adding any further insights, it is interesting to note that all later commentaries, while mostly repeating the above three points, contribute points to any of these three points presented by Vyāsa-bhāāya.
- Energy/enthusiasm - Commentaries such as Bhoja-vṛtti, Candrikā, and Yoga-sudhākara accept the view that Yatna is Utsāha (enthusiasm). Yoga-sudhākara helps the practitioner by translating the enthusiasm (from being a mere concept) with the following practical sentence - ”I will restrain the mind, which on its own tends to go outside at all cost.” It is also interesting to note that Yogasiddhanta Candrikā mentions four other aspects as part of Yatna along with utsāha, viz. – utsāha (enthusiasm), sāhasa (fearless effort), dhairya (coruage), adhyātmavidyādhyayana (study of texts on the knowledge of self), and mahatsevana (serving the pious)
- Desire to achieve the goal - It is interesting to note that, other than Vyāsa-bhāāya, the concept of need of desire as a component of Yatna (effort) is reiterated only by Nāgojṭbhaṭṭa-vṛtti. No other commentator gives importance to this component in practice
- Practice of steps/methods - Although Vyāsa-bhāāya does not specify any Methods (Sādhanas) for the practice, most other commentators contribute a lot of views in this regard.
- Tattva-vaiśāradṭ et al. - mention Yama, Niyama, etc., as the tools
- Yoga-vārttika et al. take the Sādhanas such as - śraddhā, vṭrya, smṛti, and samādhi prajñā mentiond in yogasūtra (PYS 1.20)
- Other commentators are either silent or merely state Yatna as enthusiasm (Bhoja, Candrikā, and Yoga-sudhākara)
- Uniquely, Yoga-vallṭi states the yatna as the contemplative practice of knowledge of the difference between Prakṛti and Puruāa.
All these multifarious Sādhanas can be harmonized based on the level of sthiti that the practitioner is aiming at. If sthiti aimed at is lower than the preliminary steps of Yama, niyama, etc., and if the sthiti aimed is higher - the later steps can be focused upon.
- Other inputs on Yatna -
- It is very interesting to note when Tattva-vaiśāradṭ et al. state that the activity (Yatna) should be focused on the effort and not on the goal. This probably has to be taken in the sense of karmaṇyevādhikāraste mā phaleāu kadācana – your duty is in (performance of) action and not on results (2.47) as stated in the Bhagavadgṭtā, which is seldom discussed in the context of Yogasūtra-based practices
- Although not mentioned by Vyāsa-bhāāya - it could be noted from the table above that most other commentators (Yoga-vārttika, Pradṭpa, and Bhoja) mention the need to practice again and again - punaḥ punaḥ - repetition as an important quality of Yatna of Yoga toward Sthiti. Nāgojṭ-bhaṭṭa-vṛtti also mentions the same but in a different but interesting terminology - Yatna-dhārā (continuous flow of effort).
It could also be noted that in the context of Sthiti - a later commentary (Bhāsvatṭ) harmonized all the different strands of earlier views. With regard to Yatna - it could be noted that most later commentators have contributed their thoughts within the threefold framework of the definition provided by Vyāsa's commentary - the primary commentary.
The following flowchart [Figure 1] elucidates the component of Yoga Yatna.
| Discussion|| |
At the outset it has to be stated that Yoga-abhyāsa is made up of Yoga-yatna and Yoga-sthiti itself is an insight that is seldom noticed in the context of the practice of Yoga [[Figure 2]: Components of Yoga-abhyāsa]. Yatna (effort) that incorporates the aforementioned dimensions directed toward the two-fold Yoga-sthiti is what characterizes abhyāsa of Yoga – as per the textual authority. Although externally Yoga-abhyāsa may seem like the repetition of bodily movements and breath regulation and focusing of the mind - these are the beneficial underlying principles that are to be grasped by the practitioner and also the teacher of Yoga.
It is to be noted that lack of clarity about Sthiti will lead to loss of direction in the practice of yoga and lack of clarity about the components of Yatna will impair the quality of practice and attainment of the desired goal.
Further, this discussion on Yoga-abhyāsa is based on the commentaries in the context of Yoga as a spiritual, philosophical discipline toward the attainment realization of consciousness. However, useful lessons for Yoga therapy can also be drawn from the above textual inputs. They are as follows:
With regard to Yoga-sthiti - four implications in the context of Yoga therapy can be derived:
- Based on the two-fold Yoga-sthitis, it can be stated that Yoga therapy should also have short-term and long-term goals – two-fold sthitis to be attained
- Based on the input on Yogasthiti as Praśānta-vāhitā from the commentaries - it can be stated that Yoga therapy should lead a practitioner to a peaceful flow of mind and should not agitate. This insight from the texts assumes significance in light of many dynamic aerobics such as practices being termed Yoga
- As per the commentaries – Yoga-sthiti is also characterized by reduction of Rajas and Tamas and increase of Sattva - hence - Yoga therapy should focus on reducing Rajas and Tamas and promoting state of sattva. This should be the guiding principle in employing Yoga tools for therapeutic purposes. The outcome of Yoga-abhyāsa should also be measured in terms of reduction of Rajas and Tamas and pre-eminence of Sattva
- Yoga-sthiti is also described by the commentators as a state of steadiness - hence from the state of unsteadiness, a therapist should work toward taking the care seeker to the state of steadiness at the level, body, breath, mind, etc.
With regard to Yoga-yatna, all the five aspects that were derived from the commentaries [Figure 1] are applicable as such in the context of Yoga therapy also, and hence, special re-interpretation in the context of Yoga therapy is not required.
Furthermore, in this era of Yoga-cikitsā, the abhyāsa of Yoga is focused on Śamana (subsiding/pacification) of Roga (illnesses) like any other system of healing. Hence, when Roga-śamana happens, like in any other practice of healing, the seeker of Yoga therapy stops practicing Yoga, as he or she thinks purpose from Yoga has been derived.
However, as is evident from Yogic lore discussed and shown in the paper, Yoga does not end with Roga-śamana. The commentaries present two-tier Yoga-sthiti's to be achieved that are characterized by Ekāgratā (single-pointed focus) and Praśānta-vāhitā (peaceful flow of mind) [[Figur]e 3: Road map for Yoga-abhyāsa]. If these Yoga-sthitis that lie beyond Roga-śamana are clarified to the care seekers, then - even after roga-śamana, there is a possibility that seekers of Yoga therapy will continue with Yoga practices to work toward these higher goals of Yoga - which will in turn ensure a sustained state of well-being and evolution of consciousness to higher states.
| Conclusion|| |
At the outset, based on the discussion in the paper, it is suggested that the term abhyāsa used in the context of Yogasūtras seems to be a nontranslatable term. It cannot be merely “Yoga-practice”. Practice (repetition of efforts) is also a dimension of Yoga-abhyāsa. With these many layers of meanings and implications, the saṃskṛta term can be retained as such, to point to all these dimensions of meanings. Second, this discussion also systematically quells the popular notion that Yoga-abhyāsa refers only to physical exercises and breathing exercises. Yoga-abhyāsa as evidenced through the commentary inputs has a well-structured theoretical framework that guides the practice, resorting to which leads to well-being and beyond. This discussion also brings fore the value of the commentary literature, which presents various dimensions of abhyāsa of Yoga reflected upon and recorded over millennia and half by the Saṃskṛta Yogic commentators.
It is to be noted that the focus of the paper was on just the Sūtra that defines abhyāsa (PYS 1.13), which has yielded rich insights. The subsequent Sūtra speaks about the qualities and attitudes that are required to take the practice to firmer ground that needs to be reviewed in a separate paper in the light of the insightful Saṃskṛta commentaries.
Finally, it is hereby suggested that in the context of the widespread practice of Yoga and scientific validation of Yoga through empirical means, these insights and frameworks related to Yoga-abhyāsa from the traditional commentary literature should be taken into account to make the practice and also scientific evaluation of Yoga more systematic and effective.
[TAG:2]Quotes From Source Texts [/TAG:2]
Original texts with references for [Table 1] on Sthiti
- Vyāsa-bhāāya, Vivaraṇa , Yoga-sudhākara , Yoga-vallṭ:
- Vyāsa-bhāāya: cittasyāvṛttikasya praśāntavāhitā sthitiḥ (Śāṡtrṭ, 2007, 45-46)
- Vivaraṇa: avṛttikasya praśāntapaṁ…kajkara(ṁ…ga)ñjasyevābhbhasaḥ praśāntavāhitā prasannarūpata ya pariṇāmo “niruddhavṛttikasya cittasya (Śāṡtrṭ and Śāṡtrṭ, 1951, pp. 42, 43)
- Yoga-sudhākara: sthitirnaiścalyaṁ nirodhaḥ (Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)
- Yoga-vallṭ Commentary: (prakṛtipuruāavivekabhedajñānamananaṁ) tajjanitā yā praśāntasthitiḥ (Varadachari, 1986, p. 53).
Bhojavṛtti, Candrikā: vṛttirahitasya cittasya svarūpaniāṭhaḥ pariṇāmaḥ sthitiḥ (wordings of the commentaries are the same) (Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)Tattva-vaiśāradṭ Commentary, Maṇi-prabhā , Nāgojṭbhaṭṭa-vṛtti, Sūtrārtha-bodhinṭ
- Tattva-vaiśāradṭ Commentary: rājasatāmasavṛttirahitasya praśāntavāhitā vimalatā sāttvikavṛttivāhitaikāgratā sthitiḥ
- Maṇi-prabhā: rajastamovṛttiśūnyasya cittasyaikāgratā sthitiḥ (Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)
- Nāgojṭbhaṭṭa-vṛtti Vṛtti: rājasatāmasavṛttirahitasya sāttvikamātravṛttyekāgratā sthitiḥ (Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)
- Sūtrārtha-bodhinṭ: rajastamovṛttiśūnyasya cittasya ekāgratāsthitiḥ (Gopālabhaṭṭa, 1910, p. 5)
- Yoga-vārttika commentary: avṛttikasya vṛtyantaraśūnyasya na tu vṛttisāmānyābhāvavataḥ, sthityanantaraṁ saṁprajñātasya samāpattisūtre bhāāyakārairvyākhyeyatvāt| vṛtyantarābhāvātpraśāntā harāaśokāditaraṁ…garahitā ekāgravṛttidhāretyarthaḥ Śāṡtrṭ, 2007, 45-46)
- Yogasiddhanta Candrikā commentary: sthitirekāgratā (Gopālabhaṭṭa, 1910, p. 16).
Pradṭpikā Commentary: vivekaparyantaṁ cittasthairyārthaṁ...( Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)Bhāsvatṭ Commentary: avṛttikasya niruddhavṛttikasya cittasya yā praśāntavāhitā niruddhāvasthāyāḥ pravāhaḥ sā hi mukhyā sthitiḥ, tadanukūlaikāgrāvasthā'pi sthitiḥ (Śāṡtrṭ, 2007, 45-46).
Original texts with references for [Table 2] on Yatna
- Vyāsa-bhāāya, Bhāsvatṭ: (Śāṡtrṭ, 2007, 45-46)
- Vyāsa-bhāāya: tadarthaḥ prayatno vṭryamutsāhaḥ । tatsaṁpipādayiāayā tatsādhanānuāṭhānamabhyāsaḥ
- Bhāsvatṭ: sthitinimittaḥ prayatnaḥ tasya paryāyo vṭryamutsāhaśceti, tatsampipādayiāayā = sthitisampādanecchayā tatsādhanasyānuāṭhānamabhyāsaḥ
Tattva-vaiśāradṭ, Vivaraṇa , Maṇi-prabhā , sūtrārtha-bodhinṭ
- Tattva-vaiśāradṭ: sthitisādhanānyantaraṁ…gabahiraṁ…gāṇi yamaniyamādṭni । sādhanagocaraḥ kartṛvyāpāro na phalagocara iti (Śāṡtrṭ, 2007, 45-46)
- Vivaraṇa: yatno vṭryamabhyutsāha iti paryāyāḥ । sthitisaṁpipādayiāayā yamaniyamādiyogasādhanānuāṭhānamabhyāsaṁ iti (Śāṡtrṭ and Śāṡtrṭ, 1951, pp. 42, 43)
- Maṇi-prabhā: yāni sādhanāni yamaniyamādṭni tadviāayaḥ prayatnaḥ (tadanuāṭhānam) (anuāṭhānam) abhyāsa ityarthaḥ (Śāstrṭ, 2009,17)
- Sūtrārtha-bodhinṭ: yamaniyamādṭni । tadviāayakaḥ prayatno'nuāṭhānamabhyāsaḥ (Gopālabhaṭṭa, 1910, p. 5).
Yoga-vārttika , pradṭpikā:Yoga-vārttika: । tatsaṁpādanecchayā śraddhāvṭryasmṛtisamādhiprajñādṭnāṁ vakāyamāṇānāṁ sādhanānāmanuāṭhānamabhyāsaḥ (Śāṡtrṭ, 2007, 45-46)Pradṭpikā: prayatno vakāyamāṇānāṁ śraddhāvṭryasmṛtiprajñārūpasādhanānāṁ punaḥpunaranuāṭhānamabhyāsaḥ (Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)Bhoja-vṛtti , Candrikā: yatna utsāhaḥ punaḥ punastattvena cetasi niveśanamabhyāsa ityucyate (wordings of both the commentaries are the same) - (Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)Yogasiddhanta Candrikā: utsāhasāhasadhairyādhyātmavidyā- dhyayanamahatsevanayamaniyamādyanuāṭhanalakāaṇo'bhyāsa ityarthaḥ । (Gopālabhaṭṭa, 1910, p. 16)Yoga-sudhākara: yatno mānasa utsāhaḥ svata eva bahiḥpravāhaśṭlaṁ cittaṁ sarvathā nirotsyāmṭtyevaṁvidha utsāha āvartyamāno'bhyāsa ityucyate (Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)Nagoji Bhatta: tannimittaṁ tatsaṁpādanecchayā tatsādhanaviāayānuāṭhāne yā yatnadhārā(Śāstrṭ, 2009, 17)Yoga-vallṭ commentary: prakṛtipuruāavivekabhedajñānamananaṁ (Varadachari, 1986, p. 53).
Abbreviation: PYS - patañjaliyogasūtra (text spruced from Yoga-vaiśāradṭ, https://kymyogavaisharadi.org/display/moola/yoga-sūtra/iast, accessed on July 12, 2021).
| References|| |
Gopālabhaṭṭa, Paṇḍitaratnam, (Ed.). (1910). Yogasiddhāntacandrikā by Nārāyaṇatṭrtha - Yogadarsanam. (Part 1) pp. 16. Benares: Chukhamba Book Depot.
Gopālabhaṭṭa, Paṇḍitaratnam, (Ed.). (1910). Sūtrārthabodhinṭ by Nārāyaṇatṭrtha (Part 2) pp. 5, Benares: Chukhamba Book Depot.
Rukmani, T. S. (2007). Yogavārṭṭkā of Vijñānabhikṡu. (Trans.). (Vol. 1, pp. 93). New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
Śāṡtrṭ, G. D., (Ed.). (2007). Sāṃga Yogadarśana or Yoga Darśana of Patañjali, with the Scholium of Vyāsa and the Commentaries Tattva-vaiśāradṭ, Pātañjalarahasya, Yogavārṭṭkā and Bhāsvatṭ of Vācaspati Miṡra, Rāghavānanda Sarasvatṭ, Vijñānabhikṡu and Hariharānanda Āraṇya. (pp. 45-46). Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan.
Śāstri, Paṇḍita Ḍhuṇḍhirāja, (Ed. with Notes by). (2009). Yogasūtram by Maharāi patañjali, with Six commentaries, Rāja-mārtāṇḍa of Bhoja, pradṭpikā of Bhāva-gaṇeśa, vṛttiḥ of Nāgojṭ-bhaṭṭa, maṇi-prabhā of Rāmānanda-yati, candrikā of Ananta-deva-paṇḍita, yoga-sudhākaraḥ of Sadāśivendra-sarasvatṭ. (pp. 17). Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Reprint.
Śāstrṭ, R., & Sastri, K. S. (Eds.). (1951). Pāt ñjala[sic]-yogasūtra-bhāāya vivaraṇam of śaṁ…kara-bhagavatpāda critically edited with introduction. (pp. 42-43). Madras: Government Oriental Manuscripts Library.
Tarka vācaspati, Tārānatha. (1873). Vācaspatya. (Vol. 1, pp. 312). Calcutta: Compiled by Kavya Prakasha Press.
Varadachari, V. (1986). Yoga-vallṭ, yogasūtravyākhyā samādhipādaḥ by T kṛāṇamācārya. (Trans.) (pp. 53). Chennai: Kṛāṇamācārya Yoga Mandiram.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2]